The efforts of the [Japanese] moderates to avoid a war with the United States were unsuccessful, partly because the attitude of the U.S.A. – and also that of London – [which] became more and more obdurate. When, under pressure from the army, the Konoye cabinet agreed to the military occupation of all Indo-China, the British and Americans announced in July 1941 drastic economic sanctions. Japanese funds in the U.S.A., England and various dominions were blocked.”

Ernst Topitsch

Wracked with economic problems, overpopulation and riots, Japan embarked on a program of military aggression in the 1930s. The first act of aggression was against Manchuria, which was invaded on 18 September 1931 without orders from the government in Tokyo. The prime minister and the Japanese parliament saw the invasion as an act of insubordination by the Imperial Japanese Army; but they could do nothing to control the generals. From that point forward the military began to dictate aspects of national policy. To make matters worse, fanatical young officers butchered liberal politicians who supposedly threatened Japan’s “honor.”

After various skirmishes, bombings and political killings, war broke out between China and Japan. In 1937 an all-out invasion of China was initiated. China’s most important industrial and agricultural regions were occupied, but the vast interior of China held out against the Japanese invaders. In those days China was divided between a communist state in the north (under Mao) and a nationalist state (under General Chaing Kai-shek). This resulted in a three-way struggle – with the Chinese factions theoretically allied against the invader. By 1941 the war had devolved into a stalemate. The leftist Japanese historian Saburo Ienaga wrote, “In Japan, the few opponents of an imperialistic war against China never had enough popular support to prevent the conflict and were easily silenced.”

Japan’s military was divided into two hostile factions: Strike North and Strike South. The Strike North faction was dominated by the powerful Chosu clan which controlled the Imperial Japanese Army. Strike North saw Soviet Russia as Japan’s natural enemy and prepared for a war on the Asian continent. Strike South was dominated by the Satsuma clan from Kyushu which controlled the Imperial Japanese Navy. Strike South believed Japan’s main enemy was the European colonial powers of Britain, France and the Netherlands. Strike South prepared for a war in the Pacific. As an island nation, Japan naturally developed into a naval power like Great Britain; but the Chosu clan led Japan to the unusual choice of becoming a great land power as well.

Nationalism and militarism in Japan involved the cultivation of myths and the propagation of lies. It had a morally corrupting aspect, and was intellectually limiting. It gravitated toward authoritarianism. A warlike attitude was inculcated in Japan’s elementary schools. In middle school the training intensified. Ienaga wrote, “The ethics, language, and history textbooks, with their written and visual messages, had a significant jingoistic influence. Yet the military songs … hit a deeper emotional level. No amount of rational examination of the past … can erase those stirring tunes of glory from the memories of the prewar generation.”

Japan’s youth were trained for the army, for obedience to authority, and for patriotism. In 1925 military officers were assigned to every school in Japan, from middle school on up. The Western mind can hardly grasp the intensity of Japan’s militarism. Youth magazines carried articles with titles like “The Future War Between Japan and America.” At the same time, the political morality of Japan had always been pragmatic, tending toward a “might makes right” philosophy. This speaks to very old Chinese influences; but also, there was the negative example of Western imperialism. Instead of defending Asia from the “European devils,” the Japanese imitated the policies of the imperialists, taking Korea and Taiwan as colonies after the first Sino-Japanese War (July 1894 – April 1895). 

Japanese militarism, however, was only one causal element leading to war in the Pacific. There were two others. First, Stalin wanted to perpetuate Japan’s war with China so that Japan could not turn its armies against the Soviet Union; second, President Franklin Roosevelt saw Japan’s war with China as a back door into World War II. Here we find that Roosevelt’s agenda coincided with Stalin’s agenda, making an interpretation of President Roosevelt’s motives – and the motives of his advisors – almost impossible to distinguish from Stalin’s.

Did Soviet agents trigger the Pacific war?

In April 1941, as Germany and the Soviet Union were preparing for war against each other, a Soviet intelligence officer named Vitalii Pavlov made contact with Harry Dexter White of the U.S. Treasury Department. The meeting took place at the Old Ebbitt Grill in Washington, D.C., with Pavlov pretending to read a copy of the New Yorker as he waited for White to arrive. Harry Dexter White had been identified by Soviet intelligence as anti-fascist and sympathetic to the Soviet Union. According to Whittaker Chambers, White had already provided secret intelligence to the Soviet Union about Japan. He was therefore ideally placed to help with a Soviet plan to trigger a war in the Pacific. To be sure, White was not the only agent in Washington who would be tapped for this assignment. There was, in those days, multiple Soviet spy rings operating in Washington, D.C.

After White arrived at the Old Ebbit Grill he quickly identified Pavlov and sat down with the Soviet intelligence officer. Pavlov told White that the Soviet Union would soon be attacked by Hitler. Moscow was afraid that the Japanese Empire might attack the Soviet Union as well. Could White help neutralize Japan as a threat? White readily agreed to do what was necessary.   

“Having received his marching orders from Vitalii Pavlov,” wrote John Koster, “Harry Dexter White sat down at his typewriter in May 1941 to change the course of history. His task was to touch off a war with Japan without being detected as a Soviet agent.” White’s plan was to write a memorandum that would propel Roosevelt onto a collision course with Japan. Already Roosevelt had embargoed Japanese scrap metal after the Japanese Imperial Army moved into northern French Indochina. Roosevelt had decided against cutting Japan’s oil for fear it would trigger a war. White’s memorandum would attempt to change Roosevelt’s mind on this issue – persuading the American president to impose an oil embargo on Japan.

White began his memorandum by comparing American policy with the prewar appeasement policies of France and Britain. He hinted that Britain and the Soviet Union might soon fall to the Germans, leaving America to face the Axis juggernaut alone. He then proposed a strange solution to the growing problem of Japan. He suggested a bizarre agreement in which the United States would “lease” half of Japan’s air force and navy as Japan withdrew from China and Indochina. If Japan did not take this deal, America would bring down Japan’s economy with an oil embargo. Roosevelt initially rejected White’s May memorandum, but some of its ideas undoubtedly remained in the back of the President’s mind.

Then came the invasion of the Soviet Union in June. Japan was then expected to occupy the southern part of French Indochina. A debate began between Roosevelt and his advisors on what to do. Treasury Secretary Morgenthau, egged on by Harry Dexter White, urged Roosevelt to cut off Japan’s oil. Roosevelt allegedly balked, arguing that the Army and Navy were not ready for war. The government’s chief advisor on Japan, Stanley Hornbeck, also argued for an oil embargo. Then, on 21 July 1941, the Japanese occupied the remaining southern part of French Indochina. The U.S. and Britain reacted by freezing Japanese assets and cutting off credit. On 28 July 1941 a Japanese tanker was turned away at the Dutch Indonesian port of Tarakan. Japan was cut off from her principal source of oil (i.e., in Dutch Indonesia).

According to John Koster, “Roosevelt’s plan was to require the Japanese to apply for export licenses, but to grant the export licenses as they were applied for – a hindrance to trade but not strangulation.” It was in Roosevelt’s character to employ petty humiliations of this kind; but it was not a safe game to play with a proud and warlike people like the Japanese. According to Koster, however, the State Department’s Dean Acheson failed to expedite the necessary Japanese export licenses. Japan had no access to oil. The embargo was strangulation, after all. (Oops!)

As a result of the oil embargo, Japanese Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoye asked for a personal meeting with Roosevelt. He would agree to any terms that would not cause the fall of his government. Roosevelt was initially pleased at the idea of meeting Konoye; but Secretary of State Cordell Hull and “Japan expert” Stanley Hornbeck opposed a meeting with Konoye. Brought low by the death of his mother and his personal secretary in early September, Roosevelt lost the desire to override his advisors and meet with Konoye. According to Koster’s interpretation, “FDR, in his bereaved confusion and his preoccupation with the survival of Britain, let three self-serving hacks and a Soviet secret agent provoke a war that he himself did not want.”

On 6 September 1941 Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was told to prepare for war if Prime Minister Konoye’s diplomatic efforts continued to fail. On the same day, in Washington, Japanese Ambassador Nomura made the following offer to the American government: (1) “that Japan will not make any military advancement from French Indochina against any of its adjoining areas”; (2) that Japan would not feel obliged to abide by the Tripartite alliance with Germany if the United States began a war with Germany; and (3) “that Japan would endeavor to bring about the rehabilitation of [a] general and normal relationship between Japan and China, upon the realization of which Japan is ready to withdraw its armed forces from China as soon as possible….”

U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull said the Japanese peace proposal was vague and not acceptable. After the rejection of Japan’s peace offer, Prime Minister Konoye was replaced by General Hideki Tojo on 16 October 1941. Negotiations with the United States would continue, but Japan’s diplomats were not hopeful. They now offered to withdraw from Indochina after negotiating peace with China if access to the oil was restored. On hearing of this offer, the Soviet spy at the Treasury Department, Harry Dexter White, went into action. He wrote another memorandum to the President, with Treasury Secretary Morgenthau’s signature affixed. Writing in Morgenthau’s name, White warned Roosevelt that “persons in our country’s government are hoping to betray the cause of the heroic Chinese people….” Unless something was done, “rivers of oil” would soon flow to the Japanese war machine. White ended his boss’s memorandum by warning Roosevelt against “plotters of a new Munich.” White then wrote a memorandum under his own name, suggesting proposals that might turn Japan into a friendly neighbor. He offered Roosevelt the prospect of a glorious diplomatic victory. White set down ten demands for Japan which were passed on to Secretary of State Hull.

On 26 November 1941 Hull presented America’s demands to Japan, partly based on Harry Dexter White’s memorandum. First and foremost, Japan was told to withdrawal from Indochina and China immediately, with a clause signifying Japan’s abandonment of Manchuria (as a “regime in China” other than that of the National Government in Chungking). Hull was too stupid to see that his “note” to Japan was an ultimatum. The U.S. Government’s “Japan expert,” Stanley Hornbeck, who had adapted some of White’s ideas into the “Hull note,” stupidly proclaimed in the aftermath: “The Japanese government does not intend or expect to have forthwith armed conflict with the United States….”

When news of the “Hull note” reached Tokyo, the Japanese foreign minister attempted to resign. The emperor convened a meeting of Japan’s senior politicians. Even former prime ministers who had opposed Japanese imperial expansion said that America’s demands could not be met without risk of a violent revolution in Tokyo. Many of the Japanese statesmen were baffled by the American demands. When the Japanese cabinet met, the Emperor asked for a vote. The Japanese cabinet voted for war unanimously. Japan’s carrier battlegroup, the First Air Fleet, was ordered to attack Hawaii.

Were the negotiations with Japan intentionally bungled by Roosevelt’s team? Koster thinks Soviet agent Harry Dexter White played a decisive role. Admittedly, Roosevelt was not a man attentive to details. He left things to others, especially given his poor health. But there remains a number of questions about Roosevelt’s behind-the-scenes role; especially regarding Acheson’s refusal to expedite export licenses for the Japanese oil tankers. Did Roosevelt use Acheson to acquire plausible deniability in the event someone blamed him for the war? Koster’s history takes the view that Roosevelt had been hapless and naïve – that he had not intended war. As we shall see, not everyone shares this interpretation of Roosevelt’s leadership.  

What was Roosevelt and Marshall’s game?

In 1985 I met James Roosevelt, the President’s son, who had worked closely with his “father” in 1941. I asked the younger Roosevelt about Pearl Harbor and whether Japan was intentionally provoked by the President. James Roosevelt had no problem answering. “Yes,” he said, “we provoked Japan on purpose to get into the war.” I had never expected to hear such a forthright admission from the President’s son.

Koster’s attempt (in his book) to make Roosevelt into an “innocent” does not fit with James Roosevelt’s admission. In fact, James Roosevelt was not apologetic about provoking the war. He was rather self-congratulatory. He thought they had done a good thing. After all, Roosevelt saw Hitler overrunning Europe. Britain lacked the army to fight Hitler. The Soviet Union was being defeated and appeared on the verge of collapse. It is understandable, from a strategic standpoint, that some American strategists would seek for a way to intervene sooner rather than later.

We should also take account of the odd behavior of General George C. Marshall, who delayed sending a warning message to General Short in Hawaii when military intelligence officers discovered that the Japanese were planning to break off diplomatic relations. After seeing Parts 1-13 of a decoded Japanese diplomatic cable on the evening of 6 December, President Roosevelt said, “This means war.” The details follow: At 0238 Eastern Standard Time, on the morning of 7 December, Part 14 of a Japanese coded message was intercepted regarding Tokyo’s reply to the “Hull Note.” At 0730 the document had been translated and was viewed by military officers. It appeared the Japanese were breaking off negotiations. An officer in Admiral Stark’s office pointed to the virulency of Part 14’s language. Perhaps this signaled the start of hostilities. It was then suggested that an additional warning be sent to Pearl Harbor. But nothing was done. Meanwhile, Colonel Rufus Bratton, head of the Far Eastern Section of G-2, was reading his copy of Part 14 when an intercept came through of a much shorter message sent from Tokyo to the Japanese Ambassador: “Will the Ambassador please submit to the United States Government (if possible to the Secretary of State) our reply to the United States at 1:00 P.M. on the 7th, your time.”

Colonel Bratton was stunned by this detail. Why was the Japanese foreign ministry dictating an exact time of delivery on a Sunday? This was not a normal working day for diplomats. No previous Japanese diplomatic cable had specified an exact time for delivery of a note. Bratton thought that all Pacific commands should be immediately warned. Of course, like everyone else in Washington, he was not thinking of Pearl Harbor. As he said later, “Nobody in ONI, nobody in G-2, knew that any major element of the fleet was in Pearl Harbor on Sunday morning the 7th of December. We all thought they had gone to sea … because that was part of the war plan, and they had been given a war warning.”

Bratton went to find a superior officer who could take action. But it was a Sunday morning, and here was the main advantage of attacking on a Sunday. At around 0900 Bratton called General Marshall’s quarters. He was told that the general had gone horseback riding. Bratton told Marshall’s orderly to find the general immediately. It was, said Bratton, “vitally important that he communicate with me at the earliest practicable moment.” But the message was never delivered, because Marshall had not gone horseback riding (though he initially testified to Congress that he had gone horseback riding). In December 1945 General Marshall changed his testimony, claiming to have had a faulty memory. He was not horseback riding after all, but at home with his wife (where Colonel Bratton had originally tried to reach him). The mystery of Marshall’s whereabouts on that eventful Sunday morning was revealed in the biography of Soviet Ambassador Maxim Litvinoff. On page 473 of that biography it states, “On the morning of Sunday, December 7, Litvinoff’s plane arrived at Bolling Field, Washington, D.C. He was received by Brigadier General Philip R. Faymonville … General Marshall and Admiral King….”

According to Bratton’s testimony, General Marshall finally called him back at 1030 that morning. Marshall told Bratton to come to his office, which was a ten-minute drive from Marshall’s residence. Marshal did not arrive at his office until around 11:15. Marshall then sat down to read the first 13 parts of the decoded Japanese diplomatic instructions while Bratton tried to interrupt him with news of the 1 P.M. deadline message. Marshall would not allow Bratton to interrupt. At 11:45 Marshall apparently realized the significance of what Bratton was trying to tell him and wrote out a warning to America’s Pacific commanders. Marshall briefly spoke to Admiral Stark, who offered the use of the Navy’s powerful radio stations to broadcast a warning message. Marshall declined the offer. Marshall’s message to the Pacific commanders read as follows:


It was now 11:52 A.M. in Washington and 6:22 A.M. in Hawaii. The Japanese attack was little more than an hour away. Marshall had yet to warn General Short and Admiral Kimmel. His warning message had been written out. But who did he send the message to first? To the Caribbean Defense Command in Panama, the least likely to be attacked. The next message was sent to General MacArthur in the Philippines. Next it was sent to the Western Defense Command in San Francisco. The minutes were ticking by, and General Marshall was overlooking Hawaii. Now it was 12:17 P.M. Eastern Standard Time; but for some unknown reason, the radio transmission to General Short failed to reach Fort Shafter in Hawaii. Marshall then sent the message “via the Western Union land lines between Washington and San Francisco, then by RCA radio to Honolulu,” wrote Stinnett. “The transmission delay has never been adequately explained.” Please note: the Western Union telegram from Marshall arrived while the attack was in progress.

Later, Marshall would claim he could not remember talking directly with Bratton on 7 December. Surely, a general should remember a worried colonel frantically trying to get hold of him on the first day of a war. According to Robert B. Stinnett, “Tracing the Army’s delivery of the identical set of [Japanese] … intercepts during the weekend [of 7 December] is labyrinthine. Evasive accounts from some of the Army’s top generals of World War II contribute to the complexity. The trail is obscured by charges of intimidation, perjured testimony, coercion of witnesses, and obstruction of justice. Two of the most famous and respected American generals of World War II – General George C. Marshall and Lieutenant General Walter Bedell Smith – are involved.” (Keep these two generals’ names uppermost in your mind as we cover the latter two years of the war; for they are at the heart of other “mysterious” events.)

Marshall’s handling of the Pearl Harbor aftermath reads more like an episode of the Sopranos than a “day in the life” of the Army’s Chief of Staff. Did General Marshall intentionally prevent a timely warning from reaching Hawaii? Yes! It seems he did exactly that! In fact, he disappeared, then he delayed, then he dithered and, finally, he made a pig’s breakfast of sending his warning message to Hawaii.

On 6 October 1944 the Army Pearl Harbor Board concluded a three-month investigation with a report that damaged General Marshall’s reputation. The report stated, “[Marshall failed] to get to General Short on the evening of December 6 and the early morning of December 7, the critical information indicating an almost immediate break with Japan, though there was ample time to have accomplished this.”

Why did Roosevelt fail to call an emergency meeting of his military commanders on the evening of 6 December when he realized that war was coming? Why did Marshall lie about meeting Soviet Ambassador Litvinoff’s plane on the morning of 7 December? Why has the truth been hidden all these years? Did the President of the United States sacrifice an American fleet to save Stalin from Hitler? Franklin Roosevelt is considered to be a great man. But was he, really? Many historians believe Roosevelt was primarily concerned with saving Great Britain. What if he wasn’t?  

Robert Stinnett’s research suggests that Roosevelt and Marshall knew Pearl Harbor would be the target of Japan’s inevitable attack. Stinnett shows evidence that the United States had broken Japan’s naval codes before Pearl Harbor was attacked – something that has long been denied. After the publication of the initial hardcover version of Day of Deceit, Stinnett “unearthed over four thousand communications intelligence documents – all of them never before examined – that provide additional confirmation of America’s foreknowledge of Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor….”

According to Freedom of Information documents obtained in May 2000, “by mid-November 1941, as Japanese naval forces headed for Hawaii, America’s cryptographers had solved the principal Japanese naval codes.” Subsequently, when Japan’s top admirals broadcast a series of radio messages disclosing that Pearl Harbor was the target of their raid, the Americans were reading those messages in real time.

American codebreakers translated four radio messages from 5 November to 2 December indicating that Pearl Harbor was the primary target of a Japanese attack. In his own messages, Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, Commander of the First Air Fleet, “violated every security rule” issuing “radio orders … that Japan would attack America, Great Britain, and the Netherlands in the first part of December (transmitted November 5, 1941).” On 26 November Admiral Yamamoto broadcast a message to Admiral Nagumo, instructing him to head out from Hitokappu Bay into the North Pacific and refuel north of Hawaii. On 2 December Admiral Nagano set the precise date for beginning hostilities.

On the evening of 7 December 1941, radio broadcaster Edward R. Murrow and his wife were invited to dinner at the White House. After dinner Murrow was invited to a special meeting with the President. Also in attendance at this meeting was William “Wild Bill” Donovan, then Roosevelt’s Coordinator of Information and future chief of the wartime Office of Strategic Services (OSS). (Donovan had been summoned to the meeting by none other than James Roosevelt, the President’s son). The meeting was held in Roosevelt’s study and lasted about 25 minutes. What we know about the meeting was confided by Donovan to his assistant, William J. vanden Heuvel, who wrote the details in his diary.

Roosevelt was concerned about public reaction to the Japanese attack. Roosevelt asked Murrow and Donovan if the attack would unite Americans behind a declaration of war against the Axis. They both agreed it would. As the conversation progressed Donovan sensed that Roosevelt welcomed the Japanese attack, and did not seem surprised by it. During the discussion, Roosevelt claimed that he sent an advanced warning to Pearl Harbor that a Japanese attack was imminent. Heuvel records the following words, allegedly spoken by Roosevelt: “They caught our ships like lame ducks! Lame ducks, Bill. We told them, at Pearl Harbor and everywhere else, to have the lookouts manned. But they still took us by surprise.”

Yet seeking reassurance from Murrow and Donovan, the President read a telegram from T. North Whitehead at the British Foreign Office stating that America was now united. But was it? Roosevelt was still unsure. Murrow and Donovan assured him that the country was united. In relation to this strange conversation, Edward R. Murrow publicly denied that Roosevelt had advanced knowledge of Japan’s attack. Yet, in the wake of this meeting Murrow could not sleep. At 1 A.M. on the morning of 8 December, Murrow told his wife, “It’s the biggest story of my life, but I don’t know if it’s my duty to tell it or forget it.” Whatever Murrow heard on the evening of 7 December 1941, he took it to his grave.

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Notes and Links

Ernst Topisch, Stalin’s War, p. 123.

John Koster, Operation Snow: How a Soviet Mole in FDR’s White House Triggered Pearl Harbor, p. 23.

Saburo Ienaga, The Pacific War, 1931-1945: A Critical Perspective on Japan’s Role in World War II (New York: Pantheon Books, 1978), p.3.

Koster, Chapter One.

Ibid, p. 123.

Ibid, p. 112.

The account of the Pavlov-White meeting was put together by John Koster from Lt. Gen. Vitalii Pavlov’s book, Operation Snow: Half a Century at KGB Foreign Intelligence, which has never been translated into Russia. The Pavlov-White meeting is also attested to in Romerstein and Eric Breindel’s book, The Venona Secrets, pp. 29-44, demonstrated by decrypts of Soviet coded message traffic which refer to the Pavlov/White rendezvous.

Ibid, Chapter 9 on the November Memorandum.

Gordon W. Prange, At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor (New York: Penguin, 1981), p. 486.

Arthur Upham Pope, Maxim Litvinoff (New York: L.B. Fischer, 1943), p. 473.

Robert B. Stinnett, Day of Deceit: The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000), p. 233.

Ibid, p. 235.

Ibid, p. 261.

Ibid, pp. 1-4.

56 thoughts on “Grand Strategy, Part VI (1941, Asia and the Pacific)

  1. Jeff, just wanting your opinion, in 1931 when war broke out between Japan and China which was caused by a incident on the South Manchuria Railway, do you know if Soviet Agents were involved?

    1. I have no specific information about Soviet agents in Manchuria; though the Japanese militarists were concerned about Soviet influence in Manchuria. There was a secret game there, but very little about that game has been translated into English.

  2. Dear Jeff, your presentations are just phenomenal! However, even for an accidental, a VERY accidental “historian” like myself it has always been pretty much obvious that the entire conduct of the WW2 suggested that it’s main objective was to save the Soviets and allow them to expand.
    Of course, the greatest victim and the greatest loser was the most heroic and most steadfast ally. Poland.
    Let’s remember that Poland has lost more than twenty percent of her population to both Germans and the Soviets and there has never been most abhorrent betrayal in history than the betrayal of Poland by her former allies.
    Regards from Aussie – Bogdan

    1. Poland has strategically found itself in the worst position on the map. Russia and Germany are the two most significant nations on the Eurasian land mass and Poland sits between them. Always there is this tendency of Germany to cooperate with Russia to the detriment of Poland. Bismarck commented on this. And he pinpointed the logic of Poland’s position exactly. In the future, a great deal will depend on the strength of France. Will France revive as a power? Will Germany break from Russia and form a combination with France and Poland? These are the countries that could change the situation if they ever decided to get their act together and stop relying on the Americans. Right now America is straddling a line and could sink into calamity. European nations must look to themselves — if they could only see the threat in terms of communist subversion. Once the subversion dimension is contained, the rest might fall into place.

      1. Thank you Jeff. The current Polish semi conservative leadership is trying to build some kind of a coalition consisting of Eastern European countries. However, Poland herself is being torn apart by the ever existing and, unfortunately, expanding PARASITOFASCIST sector of the Polish nation especially when that monster is fueled by the BEASTS from Russia, Brussels and the Germans themselves. Germans in particular have deliberately degraded their military capability (or at least pretending to have done so) to wriggle themselves out of their responsibility towards their Polish neighbor. Germany has also contributed to the nearly total destruction of the Polish heavy industry after the “fall” of communism.
        Using their purchase power and an enormous corruption among the post communist “Polish elites” they have been buying major Polish industries and then closing them down.
        Polish historian, documentary film maker and one time candidate for the Polish Presidency, Grzegoz Braun wrote about the secret agreement between Germany and the then Soviet Union where the Soviets agreed to Germany’s reunification and one of the conditions was Germany’s promise to do exactly that.
        Germany owns also some 80% of the Polish mass media and those are rabidly hostile towards the current Polish semi conservative administration and are usually led by the remnants of the former Polish commies.
        And then there is a deliberate strategic alliance between Russia and Germany which resulted in building two gas pipelines called North Stream 1 and North Stream 2 bypassing all eastern European countries and giving Russia unprecedented power to blackmail that part of the Europe but Poland and the small Baltic countries in particular.
        Considering those circumstances there is no chance that the Germans would lift even a small finger to help Poland i any situation and especially now when they are being led by Merkel who clearly is a Soviet/Russian “sleeper agent”.
        Merkel was introduced to the chancellor Helmut Kohl by some Lothar de Masiere from the former East Germany who after the German reunification became the chairman of the German CDU. Later, it came out that Masiere was himself a long term STASI operative.
        He resigned in shame but naive Kohl kept Merkel and even promoted her to having finally been destroyed by her.
        Those. otherwise, chaotic pieces of information presented by me, I think, are nevertheless important to grasp why the Europe is, perhaps, beyond repair.

        Regards – Bogdan

  3. Very good article. The full story of World War II seems to be so obscured and will probably never fully be known.

    Is the parentage of James Roosevelt disputed? I noticed you mentioned FDR as his “father”.

    1. James Roosevelt was the son of Franklin Roosevelt. We worked closely with his father and was a Congressman in California. If memory serves, he died in 1991.

  4. Jeff, what is your view of secret societies? Do you think they possess great power in the world? What is their relation, if any, to revolutionary movements?

    1. PPS — This subject takes us into questions of elite politics, social science, conspiracy theory and the occult. A lot of bad analysis and falsification has gone into constructing grand conspiracy theories. History is far to complex to admit the validity of such “theorizing.” No single group controls history, and none stays on top forever. Elites get old, they die, and their children turn into neurotic buffoons.

  5. Do you think than that it is unlikely or impossible for a conspiratorial group to exercise power over more than a few generations? The one exception I can see to this is when the conspiracy surrounds itself with religious language and symbols. One way a secret society might survive throughout the ages would as a secret religion. The temptation of such cults seems perennial in human history, and it is interesting that those which have been unmasked and destroyed (i.e. the Manson family), have not been composed of elites.

  6. Jeff, not sure if you can comment in regards to the Grand Solar Minimum, I was reading some scientific papers done on the Mt Pinatubo eruption, one paper is from a Russian Scientist which found that the Mt Pinatubo eruption had a effect on the Middle East and the Red Sea:

    Part of the conclusion:

    The 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption severely impacted the regional climate of the Middle East and North Africa and the Red Sea. The climate perturbation was especially strong in the winter of 1991–1992 with snowfalls in Israel, the Red Sea SST cooling by more than 1 K, and widespread coral bleaching for 2–3 years. The cooling quickly penetrated into the deep ocean and lasted there for more than 20 years.

    To better understand this regional climate response, we used a coupled regional ocean‐atmosphere model to simulate these extreme events. This novel approach for the MENA region is superior with respect to fine‐resolution global model simulations and allows us to accurately represent the post‐Pinatubo anomalies both in the atmosphere and the Red Sea, as well as to quantify the contributions of the direct regional radiative forcing and circulation changes. We find that the severity of the Pinatubo impact is largely explained by the intrusion of cold air masses due to perturbations in the general circulation forced, at least partially, by volcanic impact, rather than by direct radiative surface cooling by volcanic aerosols in MENA.

    Also in 2003, a Czech Republic Scientist wrote a paper called Possible Correlation between solar and volcanic activity in a long-term scale:

  7. Putin poised to set out vision for future in dramatic speech, in what allies say will be ‘world’s most important political event’:

    Russian President Vladimir Putin is reportedly preparing to give a major address in which he will fire the starting pistol on a “new era” and set out a different vision for the future of his country as the Covid-19 pandemic wanes.

  8. U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken Warns Russia There Will Be Consequences If It Moves Against Ukraine

    CNBC: U.S. top diplomat warns Moscow of consequences amid Russian troop buildup near Ukraine

    * Blinken said Sunday he was concerned about the Russian troop buildup on the Ukrainian border and warned Moscow that “there will be consequences” for aggressive behavior.

    * “President Biden’s been very clear about this. If Russia acts recklessly, or aggressively, there will be costs, there will be consequences,” Blinken said, adding that the United States was discussing the rising military tensions on the border with allies and partners.

    * In recent weeks, Moscow has increased its military presence along the Ukrainian border, sparking concerns in the West of a budding military conflict between the two neighboring countries.

    WASHINGTON – Secretary of State Antony Blinken said Sunday he was concerned about the number of Russian troops amassing on the Ukrainian border and warned Moscow that “there will be consequences” for aggresive behavior.

    “I have to tell you I have real concerns about Russia’s actions on the borders of Ukraine.

    There are more Russian forces massed on those borders than at any time since 2014 when Russia first invaded,” Blinken said during an interview on “Meet the Press” Sunday.

    “President Biden’s been very clear about this. If Russia acts recklessly, or aggressively, there will be costs, there will be consequences,” Blinken said, adding that the United States was discussing the unfolding aggression on the border with allies and partners.

    WNU Editor: This is the Russian media’s reaction to today’s remarks by US Secretary of State Antony Blinken …. Blinken: US concerned about situation on Russian-Ukrainian border (TASS). More here …. Obama ‘deterred Russia from doing even more’ in Ukraine, Blinken claims, as he’s grilled on ‘costs and consequences’ (RT).

    More News On U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken’s Remarks On Russia And Ukraine

    U.S. Warns Of ‘Consequences’ If Russia ‘Acts Recklessly’ In Ukraine — RFE

    Blinken to return to Brussels to discuss Russia, Ukraine tensions — The Hill

    Blinken Warns Of “Consequences” If Russia Acts “Aggressively” In Ukraine — Zero Hedge

  9. U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken Warns Of China’s Aggressive Actions Against Taiwan. Criticizes Beijing’s Covid-19 Response

    Reuters: Blinken warns of China’s ‘increasingly aggressive actions’ against Taiwan

    WASHINGTON (Reuters) – U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken said on Sunday the United States is concerned about China’s aggressive actions against Taiwan and warned it would be a “serious mistake” for anyone to try to change the status quo in the Western Pacific by force.

    “What we’ve seen, and what is of real concern to us, is increasingly aggressive actions by the government in Beijing directed at Taiwan, raising tensions in the Straits,” Blinken said in an interview with NBC’s “Meet the Press.”

    Beijing on Thursday blamed the United States for tensions after a U.S. warship sailed close to Taiwan.

    WNU Editor: U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken poured water on the idea of boycotting the 2022 Beijing Olympics …. Sec. of State Blinken: Talk of Boycotting 2022 Beijing Olympics ‘Premature’ (Breitbart).

    More News On U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken’s Remarks On China

    US Secretary of State Accuses China of ‘Increasingly Aggressive Actions Directed at Taiwan’ — Sputnik

    Blinken criticizes China’s failure to ‘provide real transparency’ earlier in pandemic — CNN

    Blinken: China’s early ‘failure’ on Covid cooperation helped speed pandemic — NBC

    China hasn’t been forthright on Covid, Blinken says — Politico

    Blinken admits Covid-19 ‘got out of hand faster’ because of China — FOX News

    Blinken blasts China over COVID response, treatment of Uighurs — NYPost

  10. Ukraine tried to bait O’bama into defending them from Russia, but O’bama coyly responded by stating that the US would honor it’s obligation to defend members of NATO. Now, Russia baits Biden to defend his personal interests in Ukraine. Why do China and Russia, attempt to make the US strike first?

    1. Obama was not being baited. He was too dependent on Moscow to mistake what he was supposed to do. And Biden seems averse to letting Ukraine in NATO. Therefore, we should expect to see Ukraine go down quickly.

  11. The US is engaged in treaty for protection of Ukraine from Russia, for their surrendering of Soviet nuclear arms in exchange for dollars. We gave them the money, but they failed to fork over the nukes. They said that they don’t know what happened to them. That’s why O’bama didn’t feel obligated, despite what he may or might not have been expected to by Russia.

    I would hope that we not go to war in support of phony Ukraine leadership.I

  12. Erdogan, Zelensky Confirm ‘Strategic Partnership’ Between Turkey and Ukraine After Istanbul Meeting:

    Erdogan tells Zelensky Turkey will not recognize ‘Crimea’s annexation’:
    Turkish President expressed support to Ukraine’s initiative of the Crimean Platform:

      1. It’s no bluff, but rather obfuscation for reason of troop movements. The point of occupying Ukraine is access to Europe. The Soviet Union didn’t ever really collapse, remember? Wouldn’t it be wonderful if the US could free the people of Ukraine? Fat chance.

      2. Just shut up, wear the mask, show your vaccine passport, or stay put.

      3. U.S. Sen. Rand Paul, a practicing physician, is urging Americans to throw away their face masks and burn vaccine passports.

        “The left has gone completely COVID crazy,” the Kentucky Republican says…

        “They want government-enforced shutdowns, mask mandates, school closures, forced vaccines, and now they’re talking about a COVID vaccine passport. It’s absolutely unconstitutional – not to mention, it’s absurd.”

  13. U.S. General Hodges: deployment of Russian troops to Donbas is only a distraction, the Kremlin is preparing a different attack:

    Kyiv: DPR head Pushilin intends to ask Putin for military assistance and accession to Russia:

    1. Ty Wade. EU and NATO are in a situation they cannot solve without USA support. And they won’t get it.

    1. Ukraine is out of our way, and Russia probably seeks primarily to buttress it’s Soviet borders, but Taiwan is still actually in fact, US Territory.,Republic%20of%20China%20(ROC).

      I suspect that Taiwan, will become a member in the pending redux of the TPP, The Trans Pacific Sino-American Union, which will be a federation of the, United States, China, Mexico, Canada, as well. This all likely to be formed with the Constitutional convention, where they will shove through the ERA, end the filibuster, and register all firearms.

      1. I blocked your subsequent post. I am not allowing hostile propaganda attacking Catholics on this site any more than I would allow Catholics to attack Protestants. Go fight the Thirty Years War somewhere else. This site isn’t going to be turned into Northern Ireland.

  14. Jeff, in regard to your Part VI essay above, did you see the WSJ guest editorial by a Bard College history professor today?

    Almost seems like he was reading your essay, although he went much, much further about Stalin’s manipulation. It never occurred to me how weird it was that Stalin did nothing against Japan in the East (or that the Japanese failed to block our Lend Lease shipments to Russia), while we were banging it out against the Japanese in the Pacific and helping to defeat Hitler for Russia’s benefit in Europe.

  15. I have so enjoyed your series. We do live in perilous times. America will be fortunate to hold on to her freedoms if only by God’s grace.

  16. Revelation 17:3 and 17:8 describe a political entity, a monstrosity (because that’s what a beast is: a monster) that is “scarlet-coloured” and which “was, and is not and yet is”, which provides a unifying Satanic power to a bloc of governments that possess no direct power over their own countries.

    Writing almost 200 years ago, Alexander Hislop predicted – based on Rev 17 – that the final power system in Europe (which I would now adjust to the West as a whole) would be a very short-lived but terrible federation of nations unified by a bloody, merciless communist ideology. They would share the same oppressive policies, same atheistic immorality, same mantras, all in lockstep.

    Most people in the West imagined the Cold War meant the end of communism, but now more and more seem to be wakening up to see that was a delusion, thus making communism the definitively scarlet-coloured beast that was, and is not, and yet is. And the governments it animates will make war with the Lamb, as per Rev 17:14, but… the Lamb will overcome them. This war refers to the coming final attack on the Lord’s public witness in Rev 11 by the same communist beast and the brief success it will have in silencing the Lord’s public voice in the West, before the Lord miraculously restores His public testimony and elevates His people to authority, at which point communism will be removed as a menace to us forever.

  17. Hello, my question is off topic, but do you have a newsletter? I tried to subscribe, but there seems to be no working link. News reports up here are discussing inter-provincial travel bans and the need to block websites which provide misinformation to Canadians. I think something is coming. They usually run news reports to prepare people before they do these things.

    1. Be sure to write down my email contact information which is on the content section of this blog. Do not lose that. Note that I also have another website. I assume you know how to navigate this site. I will continue to write through mass emailing if necessary or, if I have enough subscribers I will publish a news letter.

  18. The New York Times

    The U.S. is set to announce sanctions and other measures against Russia for cyberattacks, bounties on U.S. troops and election meddling, officials said.

    Wednesday, April 14, 2021 11:26 PM EST

    The sanctions are designed to cut deeper than previous efforts to punish Russia, according to people briefed on the response.

  19. U.S. Cancels Its Deployment Of Warships To The Black Sea

    Daily Sabah: US warships retreat from Black Sea amid Russia-Ukraine tensions

    U.S. warships destined for the Black Sea have turned back amid tensions between Russia and Ukraine, diplomatic sources said Wednesday.

    The sources noted that the U.S. Embassy had informed Turkish authorities about the matter. The warships are currently anchored off the island of Crete, the most populous Greek island.

    Update #1: U.S. cancels warships deployment to Black Sea -Turkish diplomatic sources (Reuters)
    Update #2: US Notifies Turkey of Cancellation of Passage of 2 Warships Through Bosphorus, Turkish Source Says (Sputnik)

    WNU Editor: The Biden administration has just blinked.

  20. China warns of military action against Taiwan to block relations with US on eve of American visit:
    •Former US senator Chris Dodd and former deputy secretaries of state Richard Armitage and James Steinberg head to Taiwan at Biden’s request: China warns of military action against Taiwan to block relations with US on eve of American visit:
    •Beijing’s Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council says China is ‘determined to stop Taiwan independence … we are doing it with action’:

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