The Road to Civil War: A Spanish Analogy

The state is slovenly in its dealings with the citizen, permitting him, on occasion, to evade compliance with its laws; or vice versa, the state itself applies the laws fraudulently and makes them a means of deceiving the citizen.

Jose Ortega y Gasset


In Spain, the dictatorship of Gen. Miguel Primo de Rivera began in September 1923, with a military coup supported by the king. This would prove a temporary solution to an intractable problem. Primo de Rivera governed under the motto “Country, Religion, Monarchy.” To appease the left, he taxed the rich to pay for public works. When the rich complained, he tried to borrow money from banks. When currency inflation resulted, the army refused to support him. In January 1930 Primo de Rivera left Spain a broken man.

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